Spotlight on SIG Architecture: Conformance

This is the first interview of a SIG Architecture Spotlight series that will cover the different subprojects. We start with the SIG Architecture: Conformance subproject

In this SIG Architecture spotlight, we talked with Riaan Kleinhans (ii-Team), Lead for the Conformance sub-project.

About SIG Architecture and the Conformance subproject

Frederico (FSM): Hello Riaan, and welcome! For starters, tell us a bit about yourself, your role and how you got involved in Kubernetes.

Riaan Kleinhans (RK): Hi! My name is Riaan Kleinhans and I live in South Africa. I am the Project manager for the ii-Team in New Zealand. When I joined ii the plan was to move to New Zealand in April 2020 and then Covid happened. Fortunately, being a flexible and dynamic team we were able to make it work remotely and in very different time zones.

The team have been tasked with managing the Kubernetes Conformance testing technical debt and writing tests to clear the technical debt. I stepped into the role of project manager to be the link between monitoring, test writing and the community. Through that work I had the privilege of meeting the late Dan Kohn in those first months, his enthusiasm about the work we were doing was a great inspiration.

FSM: Thank you - so, your involvement in SIG Architecture started because of the conformance work?

RK: SIG Architecture is the home for the Kubernetes Conformance subproject. Initially, most of my interactions were directly with SIG Architecture through the Conformance sub-project. However, as we began organizing the work by SIG, we started engaging directly with each individual SIG. These engagements with the SIGs that own the untested APIs have helped us accelerate our work.

FSM: How would you describe the main goals and areas of intervention of the Conformance sub-project?

RM: The Kubernetes Conformance sub-project focuses on guaranteeing compatibility and adherence to the Kubernetes specification by developing and maintaining a comprehensive conformance test suite. Its main goals include assuring compatibility across different Kubernetes implementations, verifying adherence to the API specification, supporting the ecosystem by encouraging conformance certification, and fostering collaboration within the Kubernetes community. By providing standardised tests and promoting consistent behaviour and functionality, the Conformance subproject ensures a reliable and compatible Kubernetes ecosystem for developers and users alike.

More on the Conformance Test Suite

FSM: A part of providing those standardised tests is, I believe, the Conformance Test Suite. Could you explain what it is and its importance?

RK: The Kubernetes Conformance Test Suite checks if Kubernetes distributions meet the project’s specifications, ensuring compatibility across different implementations. It covers various features like APIs, networking, storage, scheduling, and security. Passing the tests confirms proper implementation and promotes a consistent and portable container orchestration platform.

FSM: Right, the tests are important in the way they define the minimum features that any Kubernetes cluster must support. Could you describe the process around determining which features are considered for inclusion? Is there any tension between a more minimal approach, and proposals from the other SIGs?

RK: The requirements for each endpoint that undergoes conformance testing are clearly defined by SIG Architecture. Only API endpoints that are generally available and non-optional features are eligible for conformance. Over the years, there have been several discussions regarding conformance profiles, exploring the possibility of including optional endpoints like RBAC, which are widely used by most end users, in specific profiles. However, this aspect is still a work in progress.

Endpoints that do not meet the conformance criteria are listed in ineligible_endpoints.yaml, which is publicly accessible in the Kubernetes repo. This file can be updated to add or remove endpoints as their status or requirements change. These ineligible endpoints are also visible on APISnoop.

Ensuring transparency and incorporating community input regarding the eligibility or ineligibility of endpoints is of utmost importance to SIG Architecture.

FSM: Writing tests for new features is something generally requires some kind of enforcement. How do you see the evolution of this in Kubernetes? Was there a specific effort to improve the process in a way that required tests would be a first-class citizen, or was that never an issue?

RK: When discussions surrounding the Kubernetes conformance programme began in 2018, only approximately 11% of endpoints were covered by tests. At that time, the CNCF’s governing board requested that if funding were to be provided for the work to cover missing conformance tests, the Kubernetes Community should adopt a policy of not allowing new features to be added unless they include conformance tests for their stable APIs.

SIG Architecture is responsible for stewarding this requirement, and APISnoop has proven to be an invaluable tool in this regard. Through automation, APISnoop generates a pull request every weekend to highlight any discrepancies in Conformance coverage. If any endpoints are promoted to General Availability without a conformance test, it will be promptly identified. This approach helps prevent the accumulation of new technical debt.

Additionally, there are plans in the near future to create a release informing job, which will add an additional layer to prevent any new technical debt.

FSM: I see, tooling and automation play an important role there. What are, in your opinion, the areas that, conformance-wise, still require some work to be done? In other words, what are the current priority areas marked for improvement?

RK: We have reached the “100% Conformance Tested” milestone in release 1.27!

At that point, the community took another look at all the endpoints that were listed as ineligible for conformance. The list was populated through community input over several years. Several endpoints that were previously deemed ineligible for conformance have been identified and relocated to a new dedicated list, which is currently receiving focused attention for conformance test development. Again, that list can also be checked on

To ensure the avoidance of new technical debt in the conformance project, there are upcoming plans to establish a release informing job as an additional preventive measure.

While APISnoop is currently hosted on CNCF infrastructure, the project has been generously donated to the Kubernetes community. Consequently, it will be transferred to community-owned infrastructure before the end of 2023.

FSM: That’s great news! For anyone wanting to help, what are the venues for collaboration that you would highlight? Do all of them require solid knowledge of Kubernetes as a whole, or are there ways someone newer to the project can contribute?

RK: Contributing to conformance testing is akin to the task of “washing the dishes” – it may not be highly visible, but it remains incredibly important. It necessitates a strong understanding of Kubernetes, particularly in the areas where the endpoints need to be tested. This is why working with each SIG that owns the API endpoint being tested is so important.

As part of our commitment to making test writing accessible to everyone, the ii team is currently engaged in the development of a “click and deploy” solution. This solution aims to enable anyone to swiftly create a working environment on real hardware within minutes. We will share updates regarding this development as soon as we are ready.

FSM: That’s very helpful, thank you. Any final comments you would like to share with our readers?

RK: Conformance testing is a collaborative community endeavour that involves extensive cooperation among SIGs. SIG Architecture has spearheaded the initiative and provided guidance. However, the progress of the work relies heavily on the support of all SIGs in reviewing, enhancing, and endorsing the tests.

I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to the ii team for their unwavering commitment to resolving technical debt over the years. In particular, Hippie Hacker’s guidance and stewardship of the vision has been invaluable. Additionally, I want to give special recognition to Stephen Heywood for shouldering the majority of the test writing workload in recent releases, as well as to Zach Mandeville for his contributions to APISnoop.

FSM: Many thanks for your availability and insightful comments, I’ve personally learned quite a bit with it and I’m sure our readers will as well.